Phage , the virus that cures

Discussion in 'Highly Technical' started by William Gaatjes, Oct 10, 2009.

  1. William Gaatjes

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    Bacteria that can transport electrons over "vast" distances.
    It seems i am experiencing the vast range of symptoms of the current flu epidemic.
    For now, this is all the commenting i can provide for i feel largely depleted of energy.

    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v491/n7423/fig_tab/nature11586_F1.html

    [​IMG]


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desulfobulbaceae
    http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/10/bacteria-electric-wires


    http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/02/electric-ocean-bacteria/
     
  2. William Gaatjes

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    I created this thread once long ago out of personal interest and to show to others that are interested as well... All the wonders of microscopic life and the impact that microscopic life has on us in every day life.
    I never knew about the biologist Lynn Margulis who had already drawn the conclusion that becomes so apparent when reading this entire thread. How much microscopic life has an impact.
    Something that is easily ignored. Life on this planet (and i am sure even in our solar system) can exist without dinosaurs or mammals. But life cannot exist without bacteria, viruses, fungi, single celled organisms.
    I am waiting for the cover of the Madonna song "We are living in a material world". It will not be long before the cover "We are living in a bacterial world" will appear. :biggrin:


    A wiki about the Late Lynn Margulis.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynn_Margulis
    You can read the entire article here at phys.org.
    http://phys.org/news/2013-02-bacterial-world-impacting-previously-thought.html#ajTabs

    An excerpt :
     
    #252 William Gaatjes, Feb 24, 2013
    Last edited: Feb 24, 2013
  3. William Gaatjes

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    Bacteria produce their own set of tools to process a soluble form of uranium.
    In reality, bacteria produce tiny nano-particles and use these nano particles to convert uranium from one form to another. Using this as part of their food cycle using redox reactions where electrons are "stripped" from one atom and passed on to another atom of a molecule.

    I assume here, that when bacteria feed, they actually breakdown molecules by breaking apart the atoms that form covalent bonding by stripping electrons, weakening the atomic crystal.

    Well, you can read the full story here :

    http://phys.org/news/2013-03-unexpected-allies-bacteria-uranium-groundwater.html

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Covalent_bond
     
    #253 William Gaatjes, Mar 8, 2013
    Last edited: Mar 8, 2013
  4. William Gaatjes

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    Perhaps more proof how much a healthy diet and how this influences gut bacteria, seems to influence the proper functioning of the brain ?
    I heard a few months ago on the radio a story about certain research, how the average IQ seems to become lower over time with humans. Perhaps it is diet related ? And what about diseases that are labeled as purely (psychological). This might give more insight and why there is an explosion of ADHD diagnosed people and also Asperger syndrome (autism spectrum)diagnosed people.

    Imagine having stress. How much trouble you have concentrating or staying relaxed while having a lot of work or while being present in a social situation were you do not know what to do.
    Now imagine that your body is experiencing severe stress because of your digestive system taking blow after blow because of an unhealthy and unbalanced gut fauna.
    How much concentration and tolerance do you have left when you encounter situations that require all your attention... Knowing that some gut bacteria and some fungi can release toxins or waste products that seem to be similar to certain neurotransmitters (or even are just exactly neurotransmitters)or might just be plain neurotoxins... ^_^


    http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-05-gut-bacteria-diet-affects-brain.html

     
    #254 William Gaatjes, Jun 15, 2013
    Last edited: Jun 15, 2013
  5. William Gaatjes

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    Some parasites i mentioned in this thread, were able to hijack the host. Lucky for us humans, these are insects. However, some parasites uses mammals as well in their life cycle.

    Dicrocoelium dendriticum, uses a snail and an ant to end up in cattle, the host.
    When the ants are infected, these ants wonder around in the grass field and likely end up being consumed along with the grass by cattle. The big questions is of course, is Dicrocoelium dendriticum able to steer infected ants and infected snails in their movement ? It seems to be...

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dicrocoelium_dendriticum
     
  6. William Gaatjes

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    Sigh... Some of the links in this thread are no longer functional. Lucky i copied the text.

    Norovirus. As any person , i to get occasionally infected. And since it is winter, the noroviruses and adenoviruses are getting busy. And since i travel by use of public transport, my immunesystem is put to the test on a daily basis. Especially when it is crowded and there is bad air circulation or air conditioning.
    Yesterday i was the unlucky subject to a norovirus infection(At least, i assume that) I do seem to have had all the symptoms. However, i read about adeno viruses that these can also cause gastroenteritis (infectious diarrhea).

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norovirus
    I do wonder if adeno viruses, the cause for the common cold...
    I wonder if the adenovirus would help in spreading the noro virus.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenovirus_infection
    I do wonder about the original Norwalk virus. Was it really the first noro virus ?
     
    #256 William Gaatjes, Feb 15, 2014
    Last edited: Feb 15, 2014
  7. Raghu

    Raghu Senior member

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  8. William Gaatjes

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    Interesting indeed, thank you.

    From the link :

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterovirus

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poliovirus
     
  9. William Gaatjes

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    I am wondering how the herpes virus becomes active again. :hmm: This article is about how a dormant herpes virus in a cell becomes active after a massive immune response against a parasite. Have some viruses developed genes which they can use to sense immunesystem activity ? Is this true ?
    Is there not a simpler answer, that some viruses may also use form of cummunicating similar to a bacterial form of communicating ? Quorum sensing ?
    That if a certain immune system chemical is present in massive numbers, that this virus knows that it must hide ?

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quorum_sensing

    http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-06-parasitic-infection-inadvertently-unleashes-dormant.html#nRlv

     
  10. William Gaatjes

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    Somewhere in this thread, i have a post about parasitic fungi.
    A specific kind of the cordyceps fungus is a parasitic fungi that takes over an ant.

    In this youtube video it can be seen. As it turns out, there are a lot of cordyceps fungi (over 400 species), where each version of this fungus has it own favorite insect to prey upon.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgkL8PulPdE

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cordyceps

    A fungi that has infected (i think it is) a locust.

    [​IMG]
     
  11. William Gaatjes

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    I came across "the warburg effect".


    I find this very interesting. What i understand of it, is that normally energy in the cell is produced by use of mitochondria. But in cancer cells , the cells can use another form of energy production. What kind of evolutionary leftover gene is responsible for this ability. It allows for cells to have more energy.

    Can somebody explain the warburg effect in more detail to me ?
    Are these qoutes correct ?

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warburg_effect

    http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-08-reveals-cancer-energy-source.html

     
  12. William Gaatjes

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    The big question is how life emerged from single celled organisms to multi cellular organisms. Multi cellular organisms where groups of cells take on a specific task. Nicole King might have found a clue. Once again it is clear that animal life would not have existed without bacteria.

    I once opted for the fun that multi cellular life is beneficial to bacteria as we are a perfect transport medium to transport bacteria over vast distances, for example away from danger or to new sources of "food". Our bacterial masters. I am thinking about food rich but dangerous area such as near geysers, hydrothermal and vulcanoes.
    Of course it is not that simple but one must admit that animal life is a handy transport vessels for bacteria and any other single and tiny organism like parasites and viruses.

    Of course, bacteria can also start to work together and form large filaments or form sheets of cooperating bacteria. Bonnie Bassler has many interesting topics about cooperating bacteria and quorum sensing. To me it seems Salpingoeca rosetta also use a form of quorum sensing (by listening in) because when the right (Algoriphagus bacteria) bacteria is present and start using quorum sensing, S Rosetta also starts to form colonies.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quorum_sensing


    http://www.wired.com/2014/08/where-animals-come-from/



     
    #262 William Gaatjes, Aug 3, 2014
    Last edited: Aug 3, 2014
  13. William Gaatjes

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    Recently there was an outbreak of a bacteria genus called Listeria in Denmark.
    This bacteria can causes serious illness and even death because of sepsis and meningitis.
    Sepsis is put simple, inflammation of the entire body.
    Meningitis is put simple, inflammation of the brain and or the central nervous system, the spinal cord.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Listeria


    Very interesting stuff :

    Thermoregulation, that is interesting stuff.
    Interesting that that works best for this bacteria at a temperature that is common when the host (human) is having a fever.
     
    #263 William Gaatjes, Aug 14, 2014
    Last edited: Aug 14, 2014
  14. Gibsons

    Gibsons Lifer

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    Normal cells will use mitochondria (oxidative phosphorylation process) and/or glycolysis for energy. Some cells will use one or the other more often, it really depends on a lot of things. Ox-phos is generally a more efficient way to get ATP from glucose and requires oxygen, while glycolysis is faster (sort of) and doesn't require oxygen. Sprinters will use glycolysis, distance runners ox-phos.

    Cancer cells use glycolysis predominantly or exclusively. To my knowledge, no one knows why. I'm sure there are some pseudoscience types who claim to know, but...

    There's usually some speculation about the ability to survive in low oxygen environments, but the Warburg effect is maintained in cancers/cancer cells that have plenty of oxygen access. So I don't really buy into that, though it's probably important in quite a few cases. I tend to think it has something to do with the ability to avoid apoptosis - mitochondria are important players in apoptosis (see cytochrome C).
     
  15. William Gaatjes

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    Thank you. I will dig into it deeper. What you have written seems that it is more common that i thought. It seemed as i read something revolutionary when i was reading about the Warburg effect.
     
  16. William Gaatjes

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    I think you have a point. But is it also not the case that cancerous cells require lot of energy for the fast division ? And that glycolysis can provide that energy ?
    Are the rates known about how fast different tumors can grow once out of control ? I read that people who do not eat much, also have less food to burn and that cancers develop more slowly in people with a moderate diet. However, people who consume a lot of calories when also developing a tumor, would have faster developing and growing tumors ? Do you have any knowledge of this , Gibsons ?

    Cancer is really amazing in a scary way. It is almost as if the cell is trying to avoid death and wants to live forever. I wonder what the shortening of telomeres would mean for cancerous cells.
    I always read in the past, that telomeres get shorter and that the cell cannot divide anymore at a certain moment. Now i read that the shortening of telomeres is reversed by by an enzyme, telomerase reverse transcriptase.

    And here i found interesting stuff.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telomere#Cancer
     
  17. Gibsons

    Gibsons Lifer

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    Certainly, and yes.

    Not all cancers grow quickly though. Generally, the faster they grow the more deadly they are, but that's also partly a product of how evaluation is done (e.g. 5 year survival data).

    There are numbers, I'm not sure how accurate they are for real in vivo cases. And again, they don't all grow fast.

    Don't know, but it wouldn't surprise me.

    Forget 'trying.' They're just cells. And, like any any imperfect replicator, they evolve.

    Still being worked on of course, but the ones that are good at being cancer are the ones we see. Some phenotypes: lack of apoptosis, increased growth rate, immune avoidance, ability to move and colonize new territory etc..... and probably some things we don't know about or haven't considered.
    Yes, active telomerase is a common feature, it's formally required for immortilization afwk.
    I was at a talk by Elizabeth Blackburn about a year ago, and she had some evidence that there was more to telomerase than just reverse transcription. I'm fuzzy on the details and too lazy to look it up atm.
     
    #267 Gibsons, Aug 15, 2014
    Last edited: Aug 15, 2014
  18. William Gaatjes

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    Of course you are right about "trying" , bad choice of words.
    I just mean to write that these cells evolved from a typical cell in the body to a cell that can seemingly live forever. But of course, there comes a point that some of those cancer cells evolve into a cell that just stops functioning. But some might evolve into a cell that can continue to live as long as there is an environment to sustain them.

    I read that when researchers looked at a tumor, the tumor had lot's of differentiated cells. Each starting to evolve into a different function. Not really evolved into a new kind of organism, it was more that some of these these cells showed different activities compared to others in the tumor.

    And there is one form of cancer that i find very interesting and is described here in this thread. It is a parasitic cancer :

    http://forums.anandtech.com/showpost.php?p=30237562&postcount=130

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devil_facial_tumour_disease

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitic_cancer

    This cancer likely evolved from being just a cancer to a transmittable form of cancer. But i still wonder if the start was some kind of pathogen infection.
     
    #268 William Gaatjes, Aug 16, 2014
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  19. William Gaatjes

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    What is really scary but luckily very rare and only happens with the syrian hamster is a form of parasitic cancer that is transmitted from hamster to hamster by a mosquito bite.

    This is from research done in 1967.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1841392/
     
  20. William Gaatjes

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    Today i was at the pharmacist, and while i was waiting for my recipe, i was reading about cancer immunotherapy. This therapy is experimental and expensive but has good results. Simply put, the cancer cells produce proteins that suppress T cells. and in this therapy, T cells are modified, cultivated and placed back inside the body of the cancer patient to seek out and destroy cancer cells, these T-cells attack the cancer cells . Now this has some serious side effects, Some of these T-Cells will attack anything and a lot of cancer patients receiving the therapy (Who obviously would have died otherwise) start to exhibit auto-immune diseases as side effect. But this can be suppressed by modern medicines. This is a great advancement. The whole idea behind it is to let the body fight the cancer off. But cancer cells evolve strategies to prevent from being destroyed. The human research conquest is now to learn T cells to not be fooled by cancer cells. And this research is advancing.

    http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6165/1432.full
    Short version :
    Long version :
    EDIT :
    I was thinking that using this therapy first and then a milder form of chemotherapy would also have good results. Or first a milder form of chemotherapy and then immunotherapy as the finishing touch.
     
    #270 William Gaatjes, Aug 23, 2014
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  21. William Gaatjes

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    Anyone who reads this thread, might get the impression that we are saturated with bacteria and other micro organisms. Especially when reading the posts about Bonnie Bassler.
    The next idea however might be that we spread our bacteria in the environment we are in. And as it turns out, this is the case. I am willing to bet that each human has a sort of unique microorganism fingerprint. And that that bacterial aura also affects the host (for example a human). I should also note that the micro organism environment a person resides in will also influence that person over time. Meaning the friendly "body" bacteria and the immune system (symbiotic) are once again fighting off invaders for a place to live on this planet.

    Researchers have found that this bacterial aura follows a person around wherever that person resides for a while. And i was willing to bet in the past it is family specific ( which turns out to be the case). So i would also not be surprised to find out that some family "diseases" or genetic diseases are also partial explainable because of the micro organisms they carry along with them.
    Diseases that are explainable through the effects of the gut on the body. But in the nasal cavities and the sinuses, there is also a bacterial culture residing.

    http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2014/08/28/microbiome-bacterial-aura-follows-you/

     
    #271 William Gaatjes, Aug 30, 2014
    Last edited: Aug 30, 2014
  22. William Gaatjes

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    This thread started with bacteriophages and is not going to end with a post about phages. Since bacteria become increasingly resistant against antibiotics and the research into phages is going on steady, there is now good news for disinfecting medical implants.


    http://phys.org/news/2013-05-bacteria-eaters-infections-medical-implant-materials.html#nRlv

    [​IMG]

     
  23. William Gaatjes

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    There has been research done where it was found out that neurons in the brain either have specific receptors for artificial sweeteners or acquire specific receptors. And there is the ongoing debate if artificial sweeteners are more damaging than their natural counterparts.

    Recent research seems to suggests that once again our gut bacteria may play a role in many aspects of our life. One such example is research that seems to suggest that gut bacteria play a key role in a controlling and boosting the immune system after a vaccine against the flu is medicated. As it turns out, the bacteria in the gut play a key role in how strong the immune system of a person is. With all the posts about bacteria in this thread, this evidence is stacking. Of course, it depends on specific species of bacteria. It is not the case that any random bacteria will be beneficial. As always, it is in the numbers and the composition of different species of bacteria living in the gut.

    But there is more...

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140917131634.htm

    It makes sense that the diet of a person determines the gut flora and fauna.
    And the gut flora and fauna determines ones health on the short term and in the long run (acquired diseases such as cancer or diabetes is an example).
    Eating only certain foods will tip the balance to one side of certain bacteria , other microorganisms and maybe even yeasts. And this could become lethal over time or beneficial, something that will become apparent in the future after more research about what the ideal bacterial composition is for a given person with a given genetic make up. So a healthy balanced diet is very important as our mothers always told us.
     
    #273 William Gaatjes, Sep 20, 2014
    Last edited: Sep 20, 2014
  24. William Gaatjes

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    This is interesting. A virus that can detect that the immune system is busy fighting a parasite. When detecting, the virus starts to replicate again.
    Amazing. How can a virus do that ?

    http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-06-parasitic-infection-inadvertently-unleashes-dormant.html

    [​IMG]
    Imagine that there are bacteria that can suppress immune system activity and that a virus can detect these bacteria. It will start to replicate like crazy since there is no danger of detection.
    In this thread is a post about a bacteria that can actually suppress specific immune system cells.
     
    #274 William Gaatjes, Sep 20, 2014
    Last edited: Sep 20, 2014
  25. William Gaatjes

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    This is a very interesting article : Scientists have unraveled how herpesviruses fight against our immune system

    http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-06-scientists-unravel-herpesviruses-immune.html#inlRlv

    [​IMG]

    EDIT:
    What are toll like receptors ?

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toll-like_receptor
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innate_immune_system
     
    #275 William Gaatjes, Sep 20, 2014
    Last edited: Sep 20, 2014
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