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Israeli tanks pour into Gaza

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LunarRay

Diamond Member
Mar 2, 2003
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Originally posted by: przero
HJD1 - Where exactly did Palastine exist and how was it named?
Without looking it up... I seem to remember that Palestine was the name of the place that bordered the Med sea and what was in '47 or '48 the subject of creation of two states, Israel and Palestine...
 

etech

Lifer
Oct 9, 1999
10,597
0
0
Originally posted by: HJD1
Originally posted by: przero
HJD1 - Where exactly did Palastine exist and how was it named?
Without looking it up... I seem to remember that Palestine was the name of the place that bordered the Med sea and what was in '47 or '48 the subject of creation of two states, Israel and Palestine...
HJD1,

Do you have any examples of the Palestinian language?
How about examples of a separate Palestinian culture?
Was the land known as Palestine ever governed by a "Palestinian"?

What was the identity of the people that made up the Palestinian brigade that served with the British Army in WWII?

Which side, Axis or Allies did the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem work with during WWII?

Can you name the most famous of the Grand Mufti's nephews?

 

LunarRay

Diamond Member
Mar 2, 2003
9,993
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Palestine
I INTRODUCTION

Palestine, historic region, the extent of which has varied greatly since ancient times, situated on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, in southwestern Asia. Palestine is now largely divided between Israel and the Israeli-occupied territories, parts of which are self-administered by Palestinians.

II THE LAND

The region has an extremely diverse terrain that falls generally into four parallel zones. From west to east they are the coastal plain; the hills and mountains of Galilee, Samaria, and Judea; the valley of the Jordan River; and the eastern plateau. In the extreme south lies the Negev, a rugged desert area. Elevations range from 408 m (1,340 ft) below sea level on the shores of the Dead Sea, the lowest point on the surface of the earth, to 1020 m (3347 ft) atop Mount Hebron. The region has several fertile areas, which constitute its principal natural resource. Most notable of these are the Plain of Sharon, along the northern part of the Mediterranean coast, and the Plain of Esdraelon (or Jezreel), a valley north of the hills of Samaria. The water supply of the region, however, is not abundant, with virtually all of the modest annual rainfall coming in the winter months. The Jordan River, the region?s only major stream, flows south through the Sea of Galilee (Lake Tiberias), the region?s only large freshwater lake, to the intensely saline Dead Sea.

III HISTORY

The Canaanites were the earliest known inhabitants of Palestine. During the 3rd millennium bc they became urbanized and lived in city-states, one of which was Jericho. They developed an alphabet from which other writing systems were derived; their religion was a major influence on the beliefs and practices of Judaism, and thus on Christianity and Islam.

Palestine?s location?at the center of routes linking three continents?made it the meeting place for religious and cultural influences from Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Asia Minor. It was also the natural battleground for the great powers of the region and subject to domination by adjacent empires, beginning with Egypt in the 3rd millennium bc.

Egyptian hegemony and Canaanite autonomy were constantly challenged during the 2nd millennium bc by such ethnically diverse invaders as the Amorites, Hittites, and Hurrians. These invaders, however, were defeated by the Egyptians and absorbed by the Canaanites, who at that time may have numbered about 200,000. As Egyptian power began to weaken after the 14th century bc, new invaders appeared: the Hebrews, a group of Semitic tribes from Mesopotamia, and the Philistines (after whom the country was later named), an Aegean people of Indo-European stock.

A The Israelite Kingdom

Hebrew tribes probably immigrated to the area centuries before Moses led his people out of serfdom in Egypt (1270? bc), and Joshua conquered parts of Palestine (1230? bc). The conquerors settled in the hill country, but they were unable to conquer all of Palestine.

The Israelites, a confederation of Hebrew tribes, finally defeated the Canaanites about 1125 bc but found the struggle with the Philistines more difficult. The Philistines had established an independent state on the southern coast of Palestine and controlled a number of towns to the north and east. Superior in military organization and using iron weapons, they severely defeated the Israelites about 1050 bc. The Philistine threat forced the Israelites to unite and establish a monarchy. David, Israel?s great king, finally defeated the Philistines shortly after 1000 bc, and they eventually assimilated with the Canaanites.

The unity of Israel and the feebleness of adjacent empires enabled David to establish a large independent state, with its capital at Jerusalem. Under David?s son and successor, Solomon, Israel enjoyed peace and prosperity, but at his death in 922 bc the kingdom was divided into Israel in the north and Judah in the south. When nearby empires resumed their expansion, the divided Israelites could no longer maintain their independence. Israel fell to Assyria in 722 and 721 bc, and Judah was conquered in 586 bc by Babylonia, which destroyed Jerusalem and exiled most of the Jews living there.

B Persian Rule

The exiled Jews were allowed to retain their national and religious identity; some of their best theological writings and many historical books of the Old Testament were written during their exile. At the same time they did not forget the land of Israel. When Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylonia in 539 bc he permitted them to return to Judea, a district of Palestine. Under Persian rule the Jews were allowed considerable autonomy. They rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem and codified the Mosaic law, the Torah, which became the code of social life and religious observance. The Jews believed they were bound to a universal God, Yahweh, by a covenant; indeed, their concept of one ethical God is perhaps Judaism?s greatest contribution to world civilization.

C Roman Province

Persian domination of Palestine was replaced by Greek rule when Alexander the Great of Macedonia took the region in 333 bc. Alexander?s successors, the Ptolemies of Egypt and the Seleucids of Syria, continued to rule the country. The Seleucids tried to impose Hellenistic (Greek) culture and religion on the population. In the 2nd century bc, however, the Jews revolted under the Maccabees and set up an independent state (141-63 bc) until Pompey the Great conquered Palestine for Rome and made it a province ruled by Jewish kings. It was during the rule (37-4 bc) of King Herod the Great that Jesus was born.

Two more Jewish revolts erupted and were suppressed?in ad 66 to 73 and 132 to 135. After the second one, numerous Jews were killed, many were sold into slavery, and the rest were not allowed to visit Jerusalem. Judea was renamed Syria Palaistina.

Palestine received special attention when the Roman emperor Constantine the Great legalized Christianity in ad 313. His mother, Helena, visited Jerusalem, and Palestine, as the Holy Land, became a focus of Christian pilgrimage. A golden age of prosperity, security, and culture followed. Most of the population became Hellenized and Christianized. Byzantine (Roman) rule was interrupted, however, by a brief Persian occupation (614-629) and ended altogether when Muslim Arab armies invaded Palestine and captured Jerusalem in ad 638.

D The Arab Caliphate

The Arab conquest began 1300 years of Muslim presence in what then became known as Filastin. Palestine was holy to Muslims because the Prophet Muhammad had designated Jerusalem as the first qibla (the direction Muslims face when praying) and because he was believed to have ascended on a night journey to heaven from the area of Solomon?s temple, where the Dome of the Rock was later built. Jerusalem became the third holiest city of Islam.

The Muslim rulers did not force their religion on the Palestinians, and more than a century passed before the majority converted to Islam. The remaining Christians and Jews were considered ?People of the Book.? They were allowed autonomous control in their communities and guaranteed security and freedom of worship. Such tolerance (with few exceptions) was rare in the history of religion. Most Palestinians also adopted Arabic and Islamic culture. Palestine benefited from the empire?s trade and from its religious significance during the first Muslim dynasty, the Umayyads of Damascus. When power shifted to Baghdâd with the Abbasids in 750, Palestine became neglected. It suffered unrest and successive domination by Seljuks, Fatimids, and European Crusaders (see Caliphate; Crusades). It shared, however, in the glory of Muslim civilization, when the Muslim world enjoyed a golden age of science, art, philosophy, and literature. Muslims preserved Greek learning and broke new ground in several fields, all of which later contributed to the Renaissance in Europe. Like the rest of the empire, however, Palestine under the Mamluks gradually stagnated and declined.

E Ottoman Rule

The Ottoman Empire defeated the Mamluks in 1517 and, with few interruptions, ruled Palestine until the winter of 1917 and 1918. The country was divided into several districts (sanjaks), such as that of Jerusalem. The administration of the districts was placed largely in the hands of Arabized Palestinians, who were descendants of the Canaanites and successive settlers. The Christian and Jewish communities, however, were allowed a large measure of autonomy. Palestine shared in the glory of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th century, but declined again when the empire began to decline in the 17th century.

The decline of Palestine?in trade, agriculture, and population?continued until the 19th century. At that time the search by European powers for raw materials and markets, as well as their strategic interests, brought them to the Middle East, stimulating economic and social development. Between 1831 and 1840, Muhammad Ali, the modernizing viceroy of Egypt, expanded his rule to Palestine. His policies modified the feudal order, increased agriculture, and improved education. The Ottoman Empire reasserted its authority in 1840, instituting its own reforms. German settlers and Jewish immigrants in the 1880s brought modern machinery and badly needed capital.

The rise of European nationalism in the 19th century, and especially the intensification of anti-Semitism during the 1880s, encouraged European Jews to seek haven in their ?promised land,? Palestine. Theodor Herzl, author of The Jewish State (1896; translated 1896), founded the World Zionist Organization in 1897 to solve Europe?s ?Jewish problem? (see Zionism). As a result, Jewish immigration to Palestine greatly increased.

In 1880, Arab Palestinians constituted about 95 percent of the total population of 450,000. Nevertheless, Jewish immigration, land purchase, and claims were reacted to with alarm by some Palestinian leaders, who then became adamantly opposed to Zionism.

F The British Mandate

Aided by the Arabs, the British captured Palestine from the Ottomans in 1917 and 1918. The Arabs revolted against the Ottomans because the British had promised them, in correspondence (1915-1916) with Husein ibn Ali of Mecca, the independence of their countries after the war. Britain, however, also made other, conflicting commitments. Thus, in the secret Sykes-Picot agreement with France and Russia (1916), it promised to divide and rule the region with its allies. In a third agreement, the Balfour Declaration of 1917, Britain promised the Jews, whose help it needed in the war effort, a Jewish ?national home? in Palestine. This promise was subsequently incorporated in the mandate conferred on Britain by the League of Nations in 1922.

During their mandate (1922-1948) the British found their contradictory promises to the Jewish and Palestinian communities difficult to reconcile. The Zionists envisaged large-scale Jewish immigration, and some spoke of a Jewish state constituting all of Palestine. The Palestinians, however, rejected Britain?s right to promise their country to a third party and feared dispossession by the Zionists; anti-Zionist attacks occurred in Jerusalem (1920) and Jaffa (1921). A 1922 statement of British policy denied Zionist claims to all of Palestine and limited Jewish immigration, but reaffirmed support for a Jewish national home. The British proposed establishing a legislative council, but Palestinians rejected this council as discriminatory.

After 1928, when Jewish immigration increased somewhat, British policy on the subject seesawed under conflicting Arab-Jewish pressures. Immigration rose sharply after the installation (1933) of the Nazi regime in Germany; in 1935 nearly 62,000 Jews entered Palestine. Fear of Jewish domination was the principal cause of the Arab revolt that broke out in 1936 and continued intermittently until 1939. By that time Britain had again restricted Jewish immigration and purchases of land.

G The Post-World War II Period

The struggle for Palestine, which abated during World War II, resumed in 1945. The horrors of the Holocaust produced world sympathy for European Jewry and for Zionism, and although Britain still refused to admit 100,000 Jewish survivors to Palestine, many survivors of the Nazi death camps found their way there illegally. Various plans for solving the Palestine problem were rejected by one party or the other. Britain finally declared the mandate unworkable and turned the problem over to the United Nations in April 1947. The Jews and the Palestinians prepared for a showdown.

Although the Palestinians outnumbered the Jews (1,300,000 to 600,000), the latter were better prepared. They had a semiautonomous government, led by David Ben-Gurion, and their military, the Haganah, was well trained and experienced. The Palestinians, on the other hand, had never recovered from the Arab revolt, and most of their leaders were in exile. The Mufti of Jerusalem, their principal spokesman, refused to accept Jewish statehood. When the UN proposed partition in November 1947, he rejected the plan while the Jews accepted it. In the military struggle that followed, the Palestinians were defeated. Terrorism was used on both sides.

The state of Israel was established on May 14, 1948. Five Arab armies, coming to the aid of the Palestinians, immediately attacked it. Israeli forces defeated the Arab armies, and Israel enlarged its territory. Jordan took the West Bank of the Jordan River, and Egypt took the Gaza Strip.

The war produced 780,000 Palestinian refugees. About half probably left out of fear and panic, while the rest were forced out to make room for Jewish immigrants from Europe and from the Arab world. The disinherited Palestinians spread throughout the neighboring countries, where they have maintained their Palestinian national identity and the desire to return to their homeland. In 1967, during the Six-Day War between Israel and neighboring Arab countries, Israel captured the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, as well as other areas.

In 1993, after decades of violent conflict between Palestinians and Israelis, leaders from each side agreed to the signing of an historic peace accord. Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasir Arafat and Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin met in the United States on September 13, 1993, to witness the signing of the agreement. The plan called for limited Palestinian self-rule in Israeli-occupied territories, beginning with the Gaza Strip and the West Bank town of Jericho. Palestinian administration of these areas began in 1994. In September 1995 the PLO and Israel signed a second peace accord, expanding limited Palestinian self-rule to almost all Palestinian towns and refugee camps in the West Bank. Under the agreements, Israel maintains the right to send armed forces into Palestinian areas and controls the areas between Palestinian enclaves.


Contributed By:
Philip Mattar

Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
 

etech

Lifer
Oct 9, 1999
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Thanks, but I knew that. It also did not answer the questions that I posed to you.
 

LunarRay

Diamond Member
Mar 2, 2003
9,993
1
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Originally posted by: etech
Thanks, but I knew that. It also did not answer the questions that I posed to you.
My post of the encyclopedia was in response to PRZero, I assumed you were aware of what was contained therein.

Regarding your specific questions...
The first three are answered by the post I referred to above... at least I can determine the answer from it...
The fourth is a bit difficult for me... do you mean individually, or by what particular heritage which also would require knowledge of the family tree of each.
The fifth I seem to remember He, The Mufti, I remember was in league with the Axis because of his immigration worries... but, Its been years since I read the details.
The sixth as I remember was Hussein of Jordan... I'm not sure though.. don't have specific memory on that one... or was it the fellow from Syria... the King.. his name escapes me also... (I do better on memory stuff when I don't have to take these pain pills) sorry.

 

etech

Lifer
Oct 9, 1999
10,597
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HJD1


I?m sorry, I didn?t realize you were so incapacitated. I?ll be glad to help you out with the answers.

Do you have any examples of the Palestinian language?
There is no separate Palestinian language.

How about examples of a separate Palestinian culture?
There was no separate Palestinian culture.

Was the land known as Palestine ever governed by a "Palestinian"?
Palestine has never been governed by a ?Palestinian?.

What was the identity of the people that made up the Palestinian brigade that served with the British Army in WWII?
The Palestinian brigade that served with the British Army was Jewish.

Which side, Axis or Allies did the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem work with during WWII?
The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem worked with Hitler on the ?final solution? to the Jewish problem.

Can you name the most famous of the Grand Mufti's nephews?
Yasser Arafat
 

LunarRay

Diamond Member
Mar 2, 2003
9,993
1
76
Etech,

I?m sorry, I didn?t realize you were so incapacitated. I?ll be glad to help you out with the answers.

Your sincere concern about my having Lupus is very decent of you. Not to worry though, I'm not all that disabled and try hard to particapate in the threads at the minor level that my limited intellegence allows. I don't feel "so incapacitated" just hard to focus at times... and I do appreciate your edifying me... Your a nice person for allowing me to opine with out jumping on what may be to you stupid comments.
 

LunarRay

Diamond Member
Mar 2, 2003
9,993
1
76
Originally posted by: etech
HJD1


I?m sorry, I didn?t realize you were so incapacitated. I?ll be glad to help you out with the answers.

Do you have any examples of the Palestinian language?
There is no separate Palestinian language.

How about examples of a separate Palestinian culture?
There was no separate Palestinian culture.

Was the land known as Palestine ever governed by a "Palestinian"?
Palestine has never been governed by a ?Palestinian?.

What was the identity of the people that made up the Palestinian brigade that served with the British Army in WWII?
The Palestinian brigade that served with the British Army was Jewish.

Which side, Axis or Allies did the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem work with during WWII?
The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem worked with Hitler on the ?final solution? to the Jewish problem.

Can you name the most famous of the Grand Mufti's nephews?
Yasser Arafat
Not only did I forget to respond in my post to the above... when I did I posted without my comment so I have to edit... maybe I should wait for awhile to post anymore..
If Palestine is or was a place I'd think it would be like in the US. We speak english with a twist and could be referred to as American english. Why not the same for Palestine? The culture of Palestine, to me is the result of all the differn't cultures that have been there. A hodgepodge of cultures called Palestinian. Palestine had govenors who lived in Palestine thus it seems reasonable that they were Palestinian. Yasser... yeah I remember that now.
 

LunarRay

Diamond Member
Mar 2, 2003
9,993
1
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Originally posted by: przero
Exactly. Before Israel there was no Palestine!
Gee. I understand the area that includes Israel parts of Jordan, Syria, and Egypt is still considered Palestine.. maybe not. But, for a place that don't exist there are a lot of maps of it..


map map
 

Moonbeam

Elite Member
Nov 24, 1999
67,318
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My damn neighbors dog bit me when I tried to push him out of his dog house. I left my key at work and needed a place to spend the night. The arrogant bastard doesn't even have a deed. He doesn't even have a language. I'm outraged.
 

LunarRay

Diamond Member
Mar 2, 2003
9,993
1
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Originally posted by: Moonbeam
My damn neighbors dog bit me when I tried to push him out of his dog house. I left my key at work and needed a place to spend the night. The arrogant bastard doesn't even have a deed. He doesn't even have a language. I'm outraged.
But, it is inferred that you are well within your right to disposess him of his home... take his bone and demand he speak english or whatever it is we speak here in Pales I mean the US.

 

etech

Lifer
Oct 9, 1999
10,597
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If the dog is only living in your yard to eat the scraps you throw him then perhaps you do have the right to take the dog house you built away from him.

In other words and since I took and passed Comp 101 with a teacher that empasized writing for your readers. There are some in this forum would benefit from a refresher course or taking it for the first time. Deliberate obfuscation is a trick normally used by people trying desperately to impress. It doesn't work with most people over the age of 13 or so.

Much of the population of Palestine emigrated there from Syria after the Jews moved in and started improving the region. They had no long history there and were recent immigrants themselves.
 

LunarRay

Diamond Member
Mar 2, 2003
9,993
1
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The dog of Moonie's trauma was or is his neighbors dog living, I presume, in his neighbors yard as I read the post. Being just a dog he had no right to the house his owner provided because Moonie wanted it for himself. Neither owned it. The question I wonder about is: Who knows what became of poor Moonie's quest for sleep and if he learned to utter in dog or if the dog learned to utter in english and does it matter.
 

Moonbeam

Elite Member
Nov 24, 1999
67,318
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Everything's ok now HJD1. I gave my neighbor's dog house to a Jew. He's a friend of mine and has written a whole history in just a night defending his right to it and has become a professional dog catcher to boot. We won't be having any more problems from that particular animal. Unfortunately, my friend has begun to act in a rather psychotic manner in the last few hours. Incredibly it seems he bleeding to death from flea bites.
 

oLLie

Diamond Member
Jan 15, 2001
5,203
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Originally posted by: Moonbeam
Everything's ok now HJD1. I gave my neighbor's dog house to a Jew. He's a friend of mine and has written a whole history in just a night defending his right to it and has become a professional dog catcher to boot. We won't be having any more problems from that particular animal. Unfortunately, my friend has begun to act in a rather psychotic manner in the last few hours. Incredibly it seems he bleeding to death from flea bites.
Where's the part about the dog suicide-bombing you and your family?
 

Chrisdragon

Member
Mar 11, 2003
85
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Sigh..when will this crap stop? I say the U.S should stop their support for Israel and let the two kill each other off.
 

Moonbeam

Elite Member
Nov 24, 1999
67,318
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Before we leave we should arm the Palestinians equivalently to the Israelis so they will stop with that nasty suicide bombing.
 

LunarRay

Diamond Member
Mar 2, 2003
9,993
1
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Originally posted by: oLLie
Originally posted by: Moonbeam
Everything's ok now HJD1. I gave my neighbor's dog house to a Jew. He's a friend of mine and has written a whole history in just a night defending his right to it and has become a professional dog catcher to boot. We won't be having any more problems from that particular animal. Unfortunately, my friend has begun to act in a rather psychotic manner in the last few hours. Incredibly it seems he bleeding to death from flea bites.
Where's the part about the dog suicide-bombing you and your family?
Ah the fleas... those terrorist little creatures left by the dog... will the dog return and reclaim the fleas or is the dog no more?

 

Moonbeam

Elite Member
Nov 24, 1999
67,318
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The dog is attending university. He's studying surveying, cartography, linguistic, and law. He has discovered that the jokers of the world fixate on those things as rationalizations for their own greed. As long as you can point to a law that says you have rights, you can do whatever evil in this life you like. He's working on a new novel too, the Secret life of the Dog. How Dog is God spelled backward, or how in reality it's dogs who inherited the earth. Oligocene paw print writing and the story of First Dog, monkey ego as a source of food.
 

LunarRay

Diamond Member
Mar 2, 2003
9,993
1
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Dog is man's best friend... we could learn much from the dog... he see life so simply... until you educate him. My doggy just does doggy stuff. He knows he is secure because he knows no differn't.. and he is. He need not unlearn nor learn life is simple that way. For him and me.
 

Moonbeam

Elite Member
Nov 24, 1999
67,318
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My dog knows when I lie down on the couch, I'll scratch his balls. He comes running. :D
 

LunarRay

Diamond Member
Mar 2, 2003
9,993
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Originally posted by: Moonbeam
My dog knows when I lie down on the couch, I'll scratch his balls. He comes running. :D
Whatever is beyond funny is you.

 

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