- Eclipse (absolute crap in my opinion)
- Netbeans (used to use it years ago when I still did java development. Liked it back then but a lot has changed)
- Intellij IDEA (never used it but supposedly the gold standard. But it's not free)
Probably many others since again haven't been in java ecosystem for a while.
To deploy java web apps one usually uses an application server. The most commonly used free open.source choice is Apache Tomcat. It can act as web server but could also run behind Apache or any other web server of your choice.
Importantly what you need to consider is which java version to use due to the new oracle licensing thing. You have to investigate here yourself as I'm not up to speed. A good starting point would be AdoptOPenJDK.
Java is quite different from C#. There isn't really an equivalent .Net framework for java.
As far as IDEs go, Intellij is what I use and it's pretty great.
Springboot is probably the most popular framework. Others to consider, Jersey 2, the defacto Jax-rs implementation. Vert.x, an asynchronous web framework. Micronaut and Quarkus, two frameworks built for fast startup times and containerization.
How you deploy a web app is going to depend on what you are deploying it to. My suggestion is look at using embedded servers and deploy a docker image which runs your jar. You can go down the path of building a war and having a dedicated application server, that is somewhat the old way of doing things.
You can use these IDE for Java:
IntelliJ IDEA there are two editions in it free community edition & paid ultimate edition. You can choose it according to your needs.
Eclipse IDE it is free & open source. I have used it in my college time & it is quite popular.