do humans innately fear the sight of a hypodermic needle? *new question*

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Kadarin

Lifer
Nov 23, 2001
44,302
10
81
Originally posted by: thirtythree
edit: here's another question I got wrong:

as people near the completion of a lucrative task, they typically become increasingly less likely to give up and discontinue their work. this best illustrates that operant behavior is most effectively influenced by _______ reinforcers.
a) primary
b) negative
c) immediate (my answer)
d) partial

I think it's a stretch, but I suppose completing a task could be considered a primary reinforcer. if you think of it in terms of stress being removed, it could also be considered a negative reinforcer. immediate seems most logical though since you work harder when the end is coming. the only way the last answer would work is if it was considered a fixed or variable interval reinforcement schedule, and I don't think it is. any ideas? I have to come up with correct answers and explanations for the ones I missed.

and she wonders why I got the high of 87%...
When I think of "lucrative task", my immediate assumption is "task that promises great reward". Therefore, that would implicitly rule out (b) and (d). Assuming (c) is indeed wrong, what we need here are specific definitions of "primary" and "immediate" reinforcers.

Of course, I'm not by any stretch of the imagination a psychologist. But I did stay at a Holiday Inn last night.
 

thirtythree

Diamond Member
Aug 7, 2001
8,680
3
0
Originally posted by: Astaroth33
When I think of "lucrative task", my immediate assumption is "task that promises great reward". Therefore, that would implicitly rule out (b) and (d). Assuming (c) is indeed wrong, what we need here are specific definitions of "primary" and "immediate" reinforcers.

Of course, I'm not by any stretch of the imagination a psychologist. But I did stay at a Holiday Inn last night.
as far as I know...

primary reinforcers satisfy a basic human need such as eating or sleeping. negative reinforcers remove something negative instead of adding something positive (e.g. running home to "remove" the cold). this example was used by my teacher but I don't understand why you wouldn't just call warmth a positive reinforcer. we didn't discuss immediate reinforcers so I assume it just means that they're immediate. partial reinforcement is when you aren't rewarded every single time you do something (e.g. slot machines).

typo
 

Pistolero

Member
Nov 21, 2001
178
0
0
Needle question:
Unconditioned is correct because it's like a direct connection...
Classical conditioned example is the dog that has been fed regularly after the ringing of a bell. Later, the bell is rung, and without the pressence of food, it start to salivate.
 

palad

Golden Member
Jul 18, 2000
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FWIW, neither of my kids were scared of needles until after they'd been stuck with one. I just don't see how it could be an unconditioned response. I imagine the best test would be to find children who had never in their lives been exposed to anything sharp, and find out if they were scared of it.
 

thirtythree

Diamond Member
Aug 7, 2001
8,680
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Originally posted by: Pistolero
Needle question:
Unconditioned is correct because it's like a direct connection...
Classical conditioned example is the dog that has been fed regularly after the ringing of a bell. Later, the bell is rung, and without the pressence of food, it start to salivate.
"because it's like a direct connection"? what does that mean?

food (UCS) > salivation (UCR)
bell (NS) + food (UCS) > salivation (UCR)
bell (CS) > salivation (CR)

shot (UCS) > discomfort (UCR)
sight of needle (NS) + shot (UCS) > discomfort (UCR)
sight of needle (CS) > discomfort (CR)

isn't it the same idea?
 

Pistolero

Member
Nov 21, 2001
178
0
0
Needle question:
Unconditioned is correct because it's like a direct connection...
Classical conditioned example is the dog that has been fed regularly after the ringing of a bell. Later, the bell is rung, and without the pressence of food, it start to salivate.

Other:
Positive reinforcement wasn't an option?
 

kenshorin

Golden Member
Apr 14, 2001
1,160
0
0
Originally posted by: palad
FWIW, neither of my kids were scared of needles until after they'd been stuck with one. I just don't see how it could be an unconditioned response. I imagine the best test would be to find children who had never in their lives been exposed to anything sharp, and find out if they were scared of it.
^
 

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