I am not sure I have ever seen so much Incorrect information in a single thread.
1. The authors questions has NOTHING to do with drivers or windows.
He stated that the BIOS didn't see the drive as a boot device. Most likely it is like my mainboard that does not attempt to boot USB 3.0 devices.
Why: 1... Many programs that are bootable load a ram payload wich then loads a native OS driver for the storage device that loads the rest of the payload. Since so much software wasn't ready for 3.0 it is possible the mainboard manufacturers didn't include this support to keep it from becoming a headache.
2... The BIOS rarely ever changes, a new board has a tweek here or there. Many probably simply didn't spend the time.
Next: This is a PC comment set, embedded devices have some different options.
A simple boot order to help people out, since MANY MANY wrong comments were made.
--> Boot Device (MBR means it reads the first "spot" of the disk and does whatever that says; UEFI a more advanced firmware that has bidirectional communication with the BIOS)
--> Boot device supports a read regardless of the operating system. There are some size restrictions, but that is generally irrelevant for boards within 5 years of age.
--> The read is the start or in some limited cases (small linux version) the whole OS. In most cases the OS then remounts the drive with native drivers and continues the boot sequence. Here inlies a common problem when switching to SATA with XP, the bios booted the device but the windows kernel could not remount the device because it didn't have the drivers embedded. THE BIOS DOES NOT KNOW OR CARE WHAT DRIVERS YOUR OS MAY OR MAY NOT HAVE. IT DOES NOT KNOW OR CARE IF YOU HAVE A 32 or X64 BIT WINDOWS.
Back to the OP:
As people have pointed out, you probably don't have a board that supports USB3.0 boot. There may be a bios change or firmware option to change this.
Once you do boot from USB3.0 your boot device may not have the drivers to sustain this boot on the above switch over. As someone noted most Linux distros have issues with that, and I think i just made my PE7 image work properly with that but it didn't natively.